Sunday, February 24, 2008


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Thursday, February 21, 2008


This is a familiar picture isn't it. Because the original picture was Marilyn Monroe. Now in this new generation, Lindsay Lohan is the star in this photo. Good Luck Lindsay!

NY Magazine has released five more photos from Lindsay Lohan’s tribute to Marilyn Monroe’s last photo shoot, a chance to give back to her fans that Lohan considered an “honor” and her mother called “artistic.” Lohan is a Marilyn Monroe fan, owns an apartment she once lived in, and has a painting that depicts the blonde bombshell in her last moments, with a bottle of pills spilled nearby. Lohan called Marilyn’s death “tragic” in her accompanying interview. She then made a reference to Heath Ledger’s death, saying “it’s also tragic what just recently happened to someone else.” and adding that “they are both prime examples of what this industry can do to someone.” As for whether hardened addict Lohan will also meet a similar fate, she said “I sure as hell wouldn’t let it happen to me.”

Lohan has been caught driving drunk several times including a high speed car chase in which several guys claim she took them hostage while she swerved and sped, causing her passengers and the person she was chasing to fear for their lives. She may not die from a pill overdose, but the statistics are stacking up against her if she continues to drink and drive. Let’s hope Lindsay gets a driver - who takes her somewhere far away.

These photos are getting a lot of attention, and that’s sure to please Lohan despite the fact that many experts say it’s not a good career move. Many of you noted in the comments that she’s no Marilyn, and at 15 years younger than Marilyn she somehow looks less natural and young than the screen legend did just six weeks before she died.


Napoleon I (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, later Napoléon Bonaparte) (15 August 1769–5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who had significant impact on modern European history. He was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as Premier Consul of the French Republic, Empereur des Français, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine.

Born in Corsica and trained in mainland France as an artillery officer, he first rose to prominence as a general of the French Revolution, leading several successful campaigns against the First Coalition and the Second Coalition arrayed against France. In late 1799, Napoleon staged a coup d'état and installed himself as First Consul; five years later he became the Emperor of the French. In the first decade of the nineteenth century, he turned the armies of France against almost every major European power, dominating continental Europe through a lengthy streak of military victories—epitomized through battles such as Austerlitz and Friedland—and through the formation of extensive alliance systems. He appointed close friends and several members of his family as monarchs and important government figures of French-dominated states.

The disastrous French invasion of Russia in 1812 marked a turning point in Napoleon's fortunes. The campaign wrecked the Grande Armée, which never regained its previous strength. In October 1813, the Sixth Coalition defeated his forces at Leipzig and then invaded France. The coalition forced Napoleon to abdicate in April 1814, exiling him to the island of Elba. Less than a year later, he returned to France and regained control of the government in the Hundred Days (les Cent Jours) prior to his final defeat at Waterloo on 18 June 1815. Napoleon spent the remaining six years of his life under British supervision on the island of St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean.
Napoleon developed relatively few military innovations, although his placement of artillery into batteries and the elevation of the army corps as the standard all-arms unit have become accepted doctrines in virtually all large modern armies. He drew his best tactics from a variety of sources and scored several major victories with a modernized and reformed French army. His campaigns are studied at military academies all over the world and he is widely regarded as one of history's greatest commanders. Aside from his military achievements, Napoleon is also remembered for the establishment of the Napoleonic Code (Code Napoléon), which laid the bureaucratic foundations for the modern French state.
He was born Napoleone di Buonaparte (in Corsican, Nabolione or Nabulione) after his deceased elder brother Napoleone, who died in 1765, in the town of Ajaccio on Corsica, France, on 15 August 1769, one year after the island was transferred to France by the Republic of Genoa. However, neither Napoleone nor his family used the nobiliary particle di. He later adopted the more French-sounding Napoléon Bonaparte. Napoleon was ethnically Corsican of ancient Italian heritage. He wrote to Pasquale di Paoli (leader of a Corsican revolt against the French) in 1789: "I was born when my country was dying. Thirty thousand Frenchmen disgorged upon our shores, drowning the throne of liberty in a sea of blood; such was the hateful spectacle that offended my infant eyes." Napoleon's heritage earned him popularity among Italians during his Italian campaigns.
The family, formerly known as Buonaparte, were minor Italian nobility coming from Tuscan stock of Lombard origin set in Lunigiana. The family moved to Florence and later broke into two branches; the original one, Buonaparte-Sarzana, were compelled to leave Florence, coming to Corsica in the 16th century when the island was a possession of the Republic of Genoa.
His father Carlo Buonaparte was born 1746 and in the Republic of Genoa; an attorney, he was named Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI in 1778, where he remained for a number of years. The dominant influence of Napoleon's childhood was his mother, Maria Letizia Ramolino.[4] Her firm discipline helped restrain the rambunctious Napoleon, nicknamed Rabullione (the "meddler" or "disrupter"). Napoleon had an elder brother, Joseph, who secretly was madly in love with his mother. His younger siblings were Lucien, Elisa, Louis, Pauline, Caroline and Jerome.
Napoleon's noble, moderately affluent background and family connections afforded him greater opportunities to study than were available to a typical Corsican of the time. On 15 May 1779, at age nine, Napoleon was admitted to a French military school at Brienne-le-Château, a small town near Troyes. He had to learn French before entering the school, but he spoke with a marked Italian accent throughout his life and never learned to spell properly. Upon graduation from Brienne in 1784, Bonaparte was admitted to the elite École Royale Militaire in Paris, where he completed the two-year course of study in only one year. An examiner judged him as "very applied [to the study of] abstract sciences, little curious as to the others; [having] a thorough knowledge of mathematics and geography ..." Although he had initially sought a naval assignment, he studied artillery at the École Militaire.
Upon graduation in September 1785, he was commissioned a second lieutenant by his leading commander, Bornfeld, in La Fère artillery regiment and took up his new duties in January 1786 at the age of 16. Napoleon served on garrison duty in Valence and Auxonne until after the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789 (although he took nearly two years of leave in Corsica and Paris during this period). He spent most of the next several years on Corsica, where a complex three-way struggle was playing out between royalists, revolutionaries, and Corsican nationalists. Bonaparte supported the Jacobin faction and gained the rank of lieutenant-colonel of a regiment of volunteers. After coming into conflict with the increasingly conservative nationalist leader, Pasquale Paoli, Bonaparte and his family fled to the French mainland in June 1793.
Through the help of fellow Corsican Saliceti, Napoleon was appointed artillery commander in the French forces besieging Toulon, which had risen in revolt against the republican government and was occupied by British troops. He placed guns at Point l'Eguillete, threatening the British ships in the harbour, forcing them to evacuate. An assault, during which Bonaparte was wounded in the thigh, led to the recapture of the city and his promotion to brigadier-general. His actions brought him to the attention of the Committee of Public Safety, and he became a close associate of Augustin Robespierre, younger brother of the Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre. Following the fall of the elder Robespierre he was briefly imprisoned in the Chateau d'Antibes on 6 August 1794, but was released within two weeks.
In 1795, Bonaparte was serving in Paris when royalists and counter-revolutionaries organized an armed protest against the National Convention on 3 October. Bonaparte was given command of the improvised forces defending the Convention in the Tuileries Palace. He seized artillery pieces with the aid of a young cavalry officer, Joachim Murat, who later became his brother-in-law. He used the artillery the following day to repel the attackers. He later boasted that he had cleared the streets with "a whiff of grapeshot," as a result of which many had died and those who had survived had fled, though the fighting had been vicious throughout Paris. This triumph earned him sudden fame, wealth, and the patronage of the new Directory, particularly that of its leader, Barras. Within weeks he was romantically attached to Barras's former mistress, Josephine de Beauharnais, whom he married on 9 March 1796. (He had been engaged for two years (1794-96) to Désirée Clary, later Queen of Sweden and Norway, but the engagement was broken off by the future emperor, in the face of her parents' opposition and their concern over his lack of fortune.)Days after his marriage, Bonaparte took command of the French "Army of Italy" on 27 March 1796, leading it on a successful invasion of Italy. At the Lodi, he gained the nickname of "the Little Corporal," literally le petit caporal. This term reflected his camaraderie with his soldiers, many of whom he knew by name, and emphasized how rarely general officers fought wars alongside their own men. He drove the Austrians out of Lombardy and defeated the army of the Papal States. Because Pope Pius VI had protested the execution of Louis XVI, France retaliated by annexing two small papal territories. Bonaparte ignored the Directory's order to march on Rome and dethrone the Pope. It was not until the next year that General Berthier captured Rome and took Pius VI prisoner on 20 February. The Pope died of illness while in captivity. In early 1797, Bonaparte led his army into Austria and forced that power to sue for peace. The resulting Treaty of Campo Formio gave France control of most of northern Italy, along with the Low Countries and Rhineland, but a secret clause promised Venice to Austria. Bonaparte then marched on Venice and forced its surrender, ending more than 1,000 years of independence. Later in 1797, Bonaparte organized many of the French-dominated territories in Italy into the Cisalpine Republic.
His remarkable series of military triumphs were a result of his ability to apply his encyclopedic knowledge of conventional military thought to real-world situations, as demonstrated by his creative use of artillery tactics, using it as a mobile force to support his infantry. As he described it: "I have fought sixty battles and I have learned nothing which I did not know at the beginning." Contemporary paintings of his headquarters during the Italian campaign depict his use of the Chappe semaphore line, first implemented in 1792. He was also a master of both intelligence and deception and had an uncanny sense of when to strike. He often won battles by concentrating his forces on an unsuspecting enemy, by using spies to gather information about opposing forces, and by concealing his own troop deployments. In this campaign, often considered his greatest, Napoleon's army captured 160,000 prisoners, 2,000 cannons, and 170 standards. A year of campaigning had witnessed major breaks with the traditional norms of 18th century warfare and marked a new era in military history.
While campaigning in Italy, General Bonaparte became increasingly influential in French politics. He published two newspapers, ostensibly for the troops in his army, but widely circulated within France as well. In May 1797 he founded a third newspaper, published in Paris, Le Journal de Bonaparte et des hommes vertueux. Elections in mid-1797 gave the royalist party increased power, alarming Barras and his allies on the Directory. The royalists, in turn, began attacking Bonaparte for looting Italy and overstepping his authority in dealings with the Austrians. Bonaparte sent General Augereau to Paris to lead a coup d'etat and purge the royalists on 4 September (18 Fructidor). This left Barras and his Republican allies in firm control again, but dependent on Bonaparte to maintain it. Bonaparte himself proceeded to the peace negotiations with Austria, then returned to Paris in December as the conquering hero and the dominant force in government, far more popular than any of the Directors.
In March 1798, Bonaparte proposed a military expedition to seize Egypt, then a province of the Ottoman Empire, seeking to protect French trade interests and undermine Britain's access to India. The Directory, although troubled by the scope and cost of the enterprise, readily agreed to the plan in order to remove the popular general from the center of power.
In May 1798, Bonaparte was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences. His Egyptian expedition included a group of 167 scientists: mathematicians, naturalists, chemists and geodesers among them. One of their discoveries was the Rosetta Stone. This deployment of intellectual resources is considered by some an indication of Bonaparte's devotion to the principles of the Enlightenment, and by others as a masterstroke of propaganda, obfuscating the true imperialist motives of the invasion. In a largely unsuccessful effort to gain the support of the Egyptian populace, Bonaparte also issued proclamations casting himself as a liberator of the people from Ottoman oppression, and praising the precepts of Islam.
Bonaparte's expedition seized Malta from the Knights of Saint John on 9 June and then landed successfully at Alexandria on 1 July, temporarily eluding pursuit by the British Royal Navy.
After landing on the coast of Egypt, he fought the Battle of the Pyramids against the Mamelukes, an old power in the Middle East, approximately four miles (6 km) from the pyramids. Bonaparte's forces were greatly outnumbered by the Mamelukes cavalry, 20,000 to 60,000, but Bonaparte formed hollow squares, keeping cannons and supplies safely on the inside. In all, 300 French and approximately 6,000 Egyptians were killed.

While the battle on land was a resounding French victory, the British Royal Navy managed to compensate at sea. The ships that had landed Bonaparte and his army sailed back to France, while a fleet of ships of the line remained to support the army along the coast. On 1 August the British fleet under Horatio Nelson fought the French in the Battle of the Nile, capturing or destroying all but two French vessels. With Bonaparte land-bound, his goal of strengthening the French position in the Mediterranean Sea was frustrated, but his army succeeded in consolidating power in Egypt, although it faced repeated uprisings.
Bonaparte Before the Sphinx, (ca. 1868) by Jean-Léon Gérôme, Hearst CastleIn early 1799, he led the army into the Ottoman province of Damascus (Syria and northern Israel) and defeated numerically superior Ottoman forces in several battles, but his army was weakened by disease—mostly bubonic plague—and poor supplies. Napoleon led 13,000 French soldiers to the conquest of the coastal towns of El Arish, Gaza, Jaffa, and Haifa.
The storming of Jaffa was particularly brutal. Although the French took control of the city within a few hours after the attack began, the French soldiers bayoneted approximately 2,000 Turkish soldiers who were trying to surrender. The soldiers' ferocity then turned to the inhabitants of the town. Men, women, and children were robbed and murdered for three days, and the massacre ended with even more bloodshed, as Napoleon ordered 3,000 more Turkish prisoners executed.
After his army was weakened by the plague, Napoleon was unable to reduce the fortress of Acre, and returned to Egypt in May. In order to speed up the retreat, Bonaparte took the controversial step of killing prisoners and plague-stricken men along the way. His supporters have argued that this decision was necessary given the continuing harassment of stragglers by Ottoman forces. Back in Egypt, on 25 July, Bonaparte defeated an Ottoman amphibious invasion at Abukir.
With the Egyptian campaign stagnating, and political instability developing back home, Bonaparte left Egypt for France in August, 1799, leaving his army under General Kléber.
While in Egypt, Bonaparte tried to keep a close eye on European affairs, relying largely on newspapers and dispatches that arrived only irregularly. On 23 August 1799, he abruptly set sail for France, taking advantage of the temporary departure of British ships blockading French coastal ports.
Although he was later accused of abandoning his troops, his departure had been ordered by the Directory, which had suffered a series of military defeats to the forces of the Second Coalition and feared an invasion.
By the time he returned to Paris in October, the military situation had improved due to several French victories. The Republic was bankrupt, however, and the corrupt and inefficient Directory was more unpopular than ever with the French public.
Bonaparte was approached by one of the Directors, Sieyès, seeking his support for a coup to overthrow the constitution. The plot included Bonaparte's brother Lucien (then serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred), Roger Ducos, another Director, and Talleyrand. On 9 November (18 Brumaire) and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control and dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a rump to name Bonaparte, Sieyès, and Ducos as provisional Consuls to administer the government. Although Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, he was outmanoeuvred by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul. This made him the most powerful person in France, a power that was increased by the Constitution of the Year X, which declared him First Consul for life.
Bonaparte instituted several lasting reforms, including centralized administration of the départements, higher education, a tax system, a central bank, law codes, and road and sewer systems. He negotiated the Concordat of 1801 with the Catholic Church, seeking to reconcile the mostly Catholic population with his regime. His set of civil laws, the Napoleonic Code or Civil Code, has importance to this day in many countries. The Code was prepared by committees of legal experts under the supervision of Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, who held the office Second Consul from 1799 to 1804; Bonaparte participated actively in the sessions of the Council of State that revised the drafts. Other codes were commissioned by Bonaparte to codify criminal and commerce law. In 1808, a Code of Criminal Instruction was published, which enacted precise rules of judicial procedure. Although by contemporary standards the code excessively favours the prosecution, when enacted it sought to protect personal freedoms and to remedy the prosecutorial abuses commonplace in European courts.
In 1800, Bonaparte returned to Italy, which the Austrians had reconquered during his absence in Egypt. He and his troops crossed the Alps in spring (although he actually rode a mule, not the white charger on which David famously depicted him). While the campaign began badly, the Austrians were eventually routed in June at Marengo, leading to an armistice. Napoleon's brother Joseph, who was leading the peace negotiations in Lunéville, reported that due to British backing for Austria, Austria would not recognize France's newly gained territory. As negotiations became more and more fractious, Bonaparte gave orders to his general Moreau to strike Austria once more. Moreau led France to victory at Hohenlinden. As a result the Treaty of Lunéville was signed in February 1801, under which the French gains of the Treaty of Campo Formio were reaffirmed and increased.
Later this year, Bonaparte became President of the French Academy of Sciences and appointed Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre its Permanent Secretary. The British signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, which set terms for peace, including the withdrawal of British troops from several colonial territories recently occupied. The peace between France and Britain was uneasy and short-lived. The monarchies of Europe were reluctant to recognize a republic, fearing that the ideas of the revolution might be exported to them. In Britain, the brother of Louis XVI was welcomed as a state guest although officially Britain recognized France as a republic. Britain failed to evacuate Malta, as promised, and protested against France's annexation of Piedmont, and Napoleon's Act of Mediation in Switzerland (although neither of these areas was covered by the Treaty of Amiens).
In 1803 Bonaparte faced a major setback when an army he sent to reconquer the Dominican Republic (Saint Domingue) and establish a base was destroyed by a combination of yellow fever and fierce resistance led by Toussaint L'Ouverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines. Facing imminent war with Britain, he recognized that French possessions on the mainland of North America would now be indefensible and sold them to the United States—the Louisiana Purchase—for less than three cents per acre ($7.40/km²). The dispute over Malta ended with Britain declaring war on France in 1803 to support French royalists.In January 1804, Bonaparte's police uncovered an assassination plot against him, ostensibly sponsored by the Bourbons. In retaliation, Bonaparte ordered the arrest of the Duc d'Enghien, in a violation of the sovereignty of Baden. After a hurried secret trial, the Duke was executed on 21 March. Bonaparte then used this incident to justify the re-creation of a hereditary monarchy in France, with himself as Emperor, on the theory that a Bourbon restoration would be impossible once the Bonapartist succession was entrenched in the constitution.
Napoleon crowned himself Emperor on 2 December 1804 at Notre Dame de Paris. Claims that he seized the crown out of the hands of Pope Pius VII during the ceremony in order to avoid subjecting himself to the authority of the pontiff are apocryphal; in fact, the coronation procedure had been agreed upon in advance. After the Imperial regalia had been blessed by the Pope, Napoleon crowned himself before crowning his wife Joséphine Empress (the moment depicted in David's famous painting, illustrated above). Then at Milan's cathedral on 26 May 1805, Napoleon was crowned King of Italy with the Iron Crown of Lombardy.In 1805 Britain convinced Austria and Russia to join a Third Coalition against Napoleon. Napoleon knew the French fleet could not defeat the Royal Navy and therefore tried to lure the British fleet away from the English Channel in hopes that a Spanish and French fleet could take control of the Channel long enough for French armies to cross to England. However, with Austria and Russia preparing an invasion of France and its allies, he had to change his plans and turn his attention to the continent. The newly formed Grande Armee secretly marched to Germany. On 20 October 1805, it surprised the Austrians at Ulm. The next day, however, with the Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805), the Royal Navy gained lasting control of the seas. A few weeks later, Napoleon defeated Austria and Russia at Austerlitz (a decisive victory for which he remained more proud than any other) on 2 December, the first anniversary of his coronation. Again Austria had to sue for peace.The Fourth Coalition was assembled the following year, and Napoleon defeated Prussia at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt (14 October 1806). He marched on against advancing Russian armies through Poland, and was involved at the bloody stalemate of the Battle of Eylau on 6 February 1807. After a decisive victory at Friedland, he signed a treaty at Tilsit in East Prussia with Tsar Alexander I of Russia, dividing Europe between the two powers. He placed puppet rulers on the thrones of German states, including his brother Jerome as king of the new state of Westphalia. In the French-controlled part of Poland, he established the Duchy of Warsaw, with King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony as ruler. Between 1809 and 1813, Napoleon also served as Regent of the Grand Duchy of Berg for his brother Louis Bonaparte.
In addition to military endeavours against Britain, Napoleon also waged economic war, attempting to enforce a Europe-wide commercial boycott of Britain called the "Continental System". Although this action hurt the British economy, it also damaged the French economy and was not a decisive blow against the enemy.
The Surrender of Madrid, Antoine-Jean Gros, c. 1810Portugal did not comply with the Continental System and in 1807 Napoleon sought Spain's support for an invasion of Portugal. When Spain refused, Napoleon invaded Spain as well, replacing Charles IV with his brother Joseph, placing brother-in-law Joachim Murat in Joseph's stead at Naples. This led to unexpected resistance from the Spanish army and civilians. Following a French retreat from much of the country, Napoleon himself took command and defeated the Spanish army, retook Madrid and then outmaneuvered a British army sent to support the Spanish, driving it to the coast. But before the Spanish population had been fully subdued, Austria again threatened war and Napoleon returned to France. The costly and often brutal Peninsular War continued, and Napoleon left several hundred thousand of his finest troops to battle Spanish guerrillas as well as British forces commanded by the Duke of Wellington. French control over Iberia deteriorated in 1812, and collapsed the following year when Joseph abdicated his throne. The last French troops were driven from the peninsula in 1814.In 1809, Austria abruptly broke its alliance with France and Napoleon was forced to assume command of forces on the Danube and German fronts. After achieving early successes, the French faced difficulties crossing the Danube and then suffered a defeat at Aspern-Essling (21–22 May 1809) near Vienna. The Austrians failed to capitalise on the situation and allowed Napoleon's forces to regroup. The Austrians were defeated once again at Wagram (6 July), and a new peace was signed between Austria and France. In the following year the Austrian Archduchess Marie Louise married Napoleon, following his divorce of Josephine.
The other member of the coalition was Britain. Along with efforts in the Iberian peninsula, the British planned to open another front in mainland Europe. However, by the time the British landed at Walcheren, Austria had already sued for peace. The expedition was a disaster and was characterized by little fighting but many casualties thanks to the popularly dubbed "Walcheren Fever".
Although the Congress of Erfurt had sought to preserve the Russo-French alliance, by 1811 tensions were again increasing between the two nations. Although Alexander and Napoleon had a friendly personal relationship since their first meeting in 1807, Alexander had been under strong pressure from the Russian aristocracy to break off the alliance with France. In order to keep other countries from revolting against France, Napoleon decided to make an example of Russia.
The first sign that the alliance was deteriorating was the easing of the application of the Continental System in Russia, angering Napoleon. By 1812, advisors to Alexander suggested the possibility of an invasion of the French Empire and the recapture of Poland.
Russia deployed large numbers of troops to the Polish borders, eventually placing there more than 300,000 of its total army strength of 410,000. After receiving initial reports of Russia's war preparations, Napoleon began expanding his Grande Armée to more than 450,000-600,000 men (in addition to more than 300,000 men already deployed in Iberia). Napoleon ignored repeated advice against an invasion of the vast Russian heartland, and prepared for an offensive campaign.
On 22 June 1812, Napoleon's invasion of Russia commenced. In an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists and patriots, Napoleon termed the war the "Second Polish War" (the first Polish war being the liberation of Poland from Russia, Prussia and Austria). Polish patriots wanted the Russian part of partitioned Poland to be incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Warsaw and a new Kingdom of Poland created, although this was rejected by Napoleon, who feared it would bring Prussia and Austria into the war against France. Napoleon also rejected requests to free the Russian serfs, fearing this might provoke a conservative reaction in his rear.
French Monarchy -Bonaparte Dynasty Napoleon I Children Napoleon II Siblings Napoleone Maria Anna Joseph, King of Spain Lucien, Prince of Canino Elisa, Grand Duchess of Tuscany Louis, King of Holland Pauline, Princess of Guastalla Caroline, Queen of Naples Jérôme, King of Westphalia Nephews and nieces Princess Julie Princess Zénaïde Princess Charlotte Prince Charles Prince Louis Prince Pierre Prince Napoleon Charles Prince Napoleon Louis Napoleon III Prince Jérôme Prince Napoleon Joseph Princess Mathilde Grandnephews and -nieces Prince Joseph Prince Lucien-Louis Prince Roland Princess Jeanne Prince Charles Prince Jerome Napoleon (V) Victor Great Grandnephews and -nieces Princess Marie Princess Marie Clotilde Napoleon (VI) Louis Great Great Grandnephews and -nieces Napoleon (VII) Charles Princess Catherine Princess Laure Prince Jerome Great Great Great Grandnephews and -nieces Princess Caroline Prince Jean-Christophe Napoleon II Napoleon III Children Napoleon (IV), Prince Imperial The Russians under Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay de Tolly avoided a decisive engagement which Napoleon longed for, preferring to retreat ever deeper into the heart of Russia. A brief attempt at resistance was offered at Smolensk (16–17 August), but the Russians were defeated in a series of battles in the area and Napoleon resumed the advance. The Russians then repeatedly avoided battle with the Grande Armée, although in a few cases only because Napoleon uncharacteristically hesitated to attack when the opportunity arose. Thanks to the Russian army's scorched earth tactics, the Grande Armée had more and more trouble foraging food for its men and horses. Along with hunger, the French also suffered from the harsh Russian winter.
Barclay was criticized for his tentative strategy of continual retreat and was replaced by Kutuzov. However, Kutuzov continued Barclay's strategy. Kutuzov eventually offered battle outside Moscow on 7 September. Losses were nearly even for both armies, with slightly more casualties on the Russian side, after what may have been the bloodiest day of battle in history: the Battle of Borodino. Although Napoleon was far from defeated, the Russian army had accepted, and withstood, the major battle the French hoped would be decisive. After the battle, the Russian army withdrew and retreated past Moscow.
Napoleon then entered Moscow, assuming that the fall of Moscow would end the war and that Alexander I would negotiate peace. However, on orders of the city's military governor and commander-in-chief, Fyodor Rostopchin, rather than capitulating, Moscow was ordered burned. Within the month, fearing loss of control back in France, Napoleon left Moscow.
The French suffered greatly in the course of a ruinous retreat; the Army had begun as over 650,000 frontline troops, but in the end fewer than 40,000 crossed the Berezina River (November 1812) to escape. The strategy employed by Barclay and Kutuzov had worn down the invaders and maintained the Tsar's domination over the Russian people. In total, French losses in the campaign were 570,000 against about 400,000 Russian casualties and several hundred thousand civilian deaths.Napoleon was imprisoned and then exiled by the British to the island of Saint Helena (2,800 km off the Bight of Guinea in the South Atlantic Ocean) from 15 October 1815. Before Napoleon moved to Longwood House in November 1815, he lived in a pavilion on the estate The Briars belonging to William Balcombe (1779-1829), and became friendly with the family, especially the younger daughter Lucia Elizabeth (Betsy) who later wrote Recollections of the Emperor Napoleon (London, 1844). This relationship ended in March 1818 when Balcombe was accused of acting as an intermediary between Napoleon and Paris.
Whilst there, with a small cadre of followers, he dictated his memoirs, and criticized his captors. There were several plots to rescue Napoleon from captivity, including one from Brazil and another from Texas, where some four hundred exiled soldiers from the Grand Army dreamed of a resurrection of the Napoleonic Empire in America. There was even a plan to rescue him using a submarine.
The question of the British treatment of Napoleon is a matter of some dispute. Certainly his accommodation was poorly built, and the location was damp, windswept and generally considered unhealthy. The paranoia, tactlessness and often petty-minded behaviour of Hudson Lowe also exacerbated what was bound to be a difficult situation. At the same time Napoleon and his entourage never accepted the legality or justice of his captivity, and the slights they received tended to be magnified. In the early years of the captivity Napoleon received many visitors, to the anger and consternation of the French minister Richelieu, who said, "this devil of a man exercises an astonishing seduction on all those who approach him." From 1818 however, as the restrictions placed on him were increased, he lived the life of a recluse.
In Britain, Napoleon came to be transformed in the public mind from a monster to a hero, no doubt a direct expression of discontent at the reactionary post-war government of Lord Liverpool. In 1818 The Times, which Napoleon received in exile, in reporting a false rumour of his escape, said that this had been greeted by spontaneous illuminations in London. There was some sympathy for him also in the political opposition in Parliament. Lord Holland, the nephew of Charles James Fox, the former Whig leader, sent more than 1,000 books and pamphlets to Longwood, as well as jam and other comforts. Holland also accused the government of attempting to kill the Emperor by a process of slow assassination. Napoleon knew of this, and based his hopes for release on the possibility of Holland becoming Prime Minister, which was Richelieu's greatest fear.
Napoleon also enjoyed the support of Admiral Lord Cochrane, one of the greatest sailors of the age, closely involved in Chile and Brazil's struggle for independence. It was his expressed aim to make him Emperor of a unified South American state, a scheme that was frustrated by Napoleon's death in 1821. For Lord Byron, amongst others, Napoleon was the very epitome of the Romantic hero, the persecuted, lonely and flawed genius. At quite the other extreme, the news that Napoleon had taken up gardening at Longwood appealed to more domestic British sensibilities, which had the effect of humanising him still further.
The nature of Napoleon's personal religious faith has come to be a frequent topic of debate. Not long after Napoleon’s death, in a lecture before Oxford University, Henry Parry Liddon asserted that Napoleon, while in exile on St. Helena, compared himself unfavorably to Jesus Christ. According to Liddon's sources, Napoleon pointed out to Count Montholon that while he and others such as "Alexander, Caesar [and] Charlemagne" founded vast empires, their achievements relied on force, while Jesus "founded his empire on love." After further discourse about the wonders of Christ and his legacy, Napoleon then reputedly said, "This it is which proves to me quite convincingly the Divinity of Jesus Christ."

I hope the time is not far off when I shall be able to unite all the wise and educated men of all the countries and establish a uniform regime based on the principles of Qur'an which alone are true and which alone can lead men to happiness. However, Napoleon's private secretary during his conquest of Egypt, Louis Antoine Fauvelet de Bourrienne, wrote in his memoirs that Napoleon had no serious interest in Islam or any other religion beyond their political value: Bonaparte's principle was, as he himself has often told me, to look upon religions as the work of men, but to respect them everywhere as a powerful engine of government. However, I will not go so far as to say that he would not have changed his religion had the conquest of the East been the price of that change. All that he said about Mahomet, Islamism, and the Koran to the great men of the country he laughed at himself... I confess that Bonaparte frequently conversed with the chiefs of the Mussulman religion on the subject of his conversion; but only for the sake of amusement.... If Bonaparte spoke as a Mussulman, it was merely in his character of a military and political chief in a Mussulman country. To do so was essential to his success, to the safety of his army, and, consequently, to his glory. In every country he would have drawn up proclamations and delivered addresses on the same principle. In India he would have been for Ali, at Thibet for the Dalai-lama, and in China for Confucius.
Napoleon died reconciled to the Catholic Church, having confessed his sins and received Extreme Unction and Viaticum at the hands of Father Ange Vignali on May 5, 1821. Napoleon had asked in his will to be buried on the banks of the Seine, but was buried on Saint Helena, in the "valley of the willows". He was buried in an unmarked tomb, because Sir Hudson Lowe refused to allow the simple inscription Napoleon to be placed on it, insisting that the word Bonaparte must also be there. In 1840 his remains were taken to France in the frigate Belle-Poule and were to be entombed in a porphyry sarcophagus at Les Invalides, Paris. Egyptian porphyry (used for the tombs of Roman emperors) was unavailable, so red quartzite was obtained from Russian Finland, eliciting protests from those who still remembered the Russians as enemies. Hundreds of millions have visited his tomb since that date. A replica of his simple Saint Helena tomb is also to be found at Les Invalides.In 1955 the diaries of Louis Marchand, Napoleon's valet, appeared in print. His description of Napoleon in the months before his death led many, most notably Sten Forshufvud and Ben Weider, to conclude that he had been indirectly killed by arsenic poisoning. Arsenic was sometimes used as a poison because at that time it was undetectable when administered over a long period. As Napoleon's body was found to be remarkably well preserved when it was moved in 1840, it gives support to the arsenic theory, as arsenic is a strong preservative. In 2001, Pascal Kintz, of the Strasbourg Forensic Institute in France, added credence to this claim with a study of arsenic levels found in a lock of Napoleon's hair preserved after his death: they were seven to 38 times higher than normal.
Cutting up hairs into short segments and analysing each segment individually provides a histogram of arsenic concentration in the body. This analysis on hair from Napoléon suggests that large but non-lethal doses were absorbed at random intervals. The arsenic severely weakened Napoléon and remained in his system.
The medical regimen imposed on Napoleon by his doctors included treatment with antimony potassium tartrate, also called tartar emetic, regular enemas, and a 600-milligram dose of mercuric chloride, also called calomel, to purge his intestines in the days immediately prior to his death. A group of researchers from the San Francisco Medical Examiner's Department speculate that this treatment may have led to Napoleon's death by causing a serious potassium deficiency. Forshufvud and Weider noted that this was coupled with high levels of orgeat that Napoleon was drinking, to attempt to quench abnormally high thirst of which he was complaining, at the time; the bitter almonds used to flavor orgeat contained cyanide compounds which, Forshufvud and Weider maintained, the frequent doses of tartar emetic were preventing Napoleon's stomach from expelling by vomiting. They remarked that the thirst of which Napoleon complained was also a possible symptom of slow chronic arsenic poisoning, and added that the dosage of calomel given to Napoleon was essentially a massive overdose. They said that it caused almost immediate corrosion and bleeding of his stomach, killing him within two days and leaving behind extensive tissue damage. Not having been looking for aftereffects of arsenic poisoning, they noted, the doctors who performed the autopsy (except for Antommarchi, the only pathologist present) could easily have mistaken this tissue damage for aftereffects of cancer.

Monday, February 18, 2008


A bit of fragrance clings to the hand that gives flowers.

Sunday, February 17, 2008


When Joey was 5 years old, his kindergarten teacher told the class to draw a picture of something that they love. Joey drew a picture of his family, and then he took his red crayon and drew a big circle around the stick figures on his paper. Joey wanted to write a word on top of the circle, so he got up from his chair and approached the teacher’s desk.

“Teacher,” he asked, “how do you spell----?”

But before he could finish his question, the teacher told him to go back to his seat and not interrupt the class again. Joey folded the paper and stuck it in his pocket.

When Joey got home from school that day, he remembered his drawing and dug it out of his pocket. He smoothed it out on the kitchen table, got a pencil from his backpack, and looked at the big red circle. Joey’s mother was busy cooking supper, but Joey wanted to finish the picture before he showed to her.

“Mom, how do you spell----?”

“Joey, can’t you see I am busy right now? Why don’t you go outside and play? And don’t slam the door,” she told him.

Joey folded the drawing and stuck it back in his pocket. Later that evening Joey dug the picture out from his pocket again. He looked at the big red circle and then ran into the kitchen to get a pencil. He wanted to finish the drawing before he showed it to his father. Joey smoothed out all the wrinkles and laid the picture on the floor near his dad’s big recliner.

“Daddy, how do you spell----?”

“Joey I’m reading the paper right now, and I don’t want to be bothered. Why don’t you go outside and play? And don’t slam the door.”

Joey folded the drawing and put it in his pocket. His mom found the drawing the next morning while she was doing the laundry. She threw it in the trash without ever opening it, along with a small rock, a piece of string, and two marbles Joey had found while he was outside playing.

When Joey was twenty-eight years old, his daughter Annie drew a picture. It was a picture of their family. Joey laughed when five-year-old Annie pointed to a squiggle stick figure and said, “That’s you daddy!”

Annie laughed too. Joey looked at the big rd circle his daughter had drawn around the stick figures and began to slowly trace the circle with his finger.

“I’ll be right back,” Annie said as she jumped off her father’s lap. When she came back she had a pencil clutched in her small hand. Her father moved the drawing aside to make room on his lap for his small daughter.

Annie positioned the pencil point near the top of the big red circle. “Daddy, how do you spell LOVE?” she asked.

Joey gathered the child in his arms and guided her small hand as he helped her form the letters.

“Love is spelled T-I-M-E,” he told her.


When Joey was 5 years old, his kindergarten teacher told the class to draw a picture of something that they love. Joey drew a picture of his family, and then he took his red crayon and drew a big circle around the stick figures on his paper. Joey wanted to write a word on top of the circle, so he got up from his chair and approached the teacher’s desk.

“Teacher,” he asked, “how do you spell----?”

But before he could finish his question, the teacher told him to go back to his seat and not interrupt the class again. Joey folded the paper and stuck it in his pocket.

When Joey got home from school that day, he remembered his drawing and dug it out of his pocket. He smoothed it out on the kitchen table, got a pencil from his backpack, and looked at the big red circle. Joey’s mother was busy cooking supper, but Joey wanted to finish the picture before he showed to her.

“Mom, how do you spell----?”

“Joey, can’t you see I am busy right now? Why don’t you go outside and play? And don’t slam the door,” she told him.

Joey folded the drawing and stuck it back in his pocket. Later that evening Joey dug the picture out from his pocket again. He looked at the big red circle and then ran into the kitchen to get a pencil. He wanted to finish the drawing before he showed it to his father. Joey smoothed out all the wrinkles and laid the picture on the floor near his dad’s big recliner.

“Daddy, how do you spell----?”

“Joey I’m reading the paper right now, and I don’t want to be bothered. Why don’t you go outside and play? And don’t slam the door.”

Joey folded the drawing and put it in his pocket. His mom found the drawing the next morning while she was doing the laundry. She threw it in the trash without ever opening it, along with a small rock, a piece of string, and two marbles Joey had found while he was outside playing.

When Joey was twenty-eight years old, his daughter Annie drew a picture. It was a picture of their family. Joey laughed when five-year-old Annie pointed to a squiggle stick figure and said, “That’s you daddy!”

Annie laughed too. Joey looked at the big rd circle his daughter had drawn around the stick figures and began to slowly trace the circle with his finger.

“I’ll be right back,” Annie said as she jumped off her father’s lap. When she came back she had a pencil clutched in her small hand. Her father moved the drawing aside to make room on his lap for his small daughter.

Annie positioned the pencil point near the top of the big red circle. “Daddy, how do you spell LOVE?” she asked.

Joey gathered the child in his arms and guided her small hand as he helped her form the letters.

“Love is spelled T-I-M-E,” he told her.


A High-Yield Investment Program (HYIP) is a type of scam. At one time, it was used to refer to an investment program which may have offered a high return on investment. The term "HYIP" was abused by the operators of scams to camouflage their scams as legitimate investments. Due to this overuse by scammers, HYIP has almost become synonymous with Scam or Ponzi.

Most HYIPs disclose little or no detail about the underlying management, location, or other aspects of how money is to be invested (often because money is not actually invested), and relatively little information (other than asserting that they do various types of trading on various stock and other exchanges) on how they actually generate the returns they purport. They are sometimes presented with some form of an emotional appeal, appeals for faith, and promises that they will help investors achieve financial freedom.

Online HYIP schemes rarely last for more than a couple of years and typically accept small deposits while promising astoundingly high returns. An overwhelming number of cases suggest that HYIPs are Ponzi schemes, in which new investors provide the cash to pay a profit to existing investors, which they typically then withdraw. This approach allows the scam to continue as long as new investors are found and/or old investors leave their money in the scheme, known as compounding (because even higher profits are promised). The SEC has said the following on the matter: "These fraudulent schemes involve the purported issuance, trading, or use of so-called 'prime' bank, 'prime' European bank or 'prime' world bank financial instruments, or other 'high yield investment programs.' ('HYIP's) The fraud artists... seek to mislead investors by suggesting that well regarded and financially sound institutions participate in these bogus programs."

The introduction of e-currencies has made it possible for HYIPs to operate on the internet and cross international boundaries, and to accept large numbers of small investments. HYIPs usually accept deposits by either e-currency, like e-gold, and INTGold, or use specialist third party payment processors like AlertPay, SolidTrustPay, CEPTrust, TriStarMoneyChangers and StormPay. HYIPs typically offer a significant incentive commission (for example, 9% of invested funds) for members to attract and refer new investors.

Arguably, the largest HYIP scam that has existed on the internet was PIPS (People in Profit System or Pure Investors). The investment scheme was started by Bryan Marsden in early 2004, (according to the Wayback Machine record of and spanned more than 20 countries. PIPS was investigated by Bank Negara Malaysia in 2005 which resulted in Marsden and his wife being charged in a Malaysian court with 97 counts of money laundering involving more than RM77 million - US$20 million. Even after these charges were brought forth many of Marsden's followers/investors continued to support him and believe they would see their money some day. This behavior and denial could be seen and still is seen on hyip forums.

As a result of online forums and monitoring sites which have made HYIP investors more aware of their nature, a different sort of "honest" HYIP began springing up in the early months of 2006. Basically, the HYIP owner calls his or her program a "ponzi-structured game" where one should "not invest money one cannot afford to lose", and where there is "never a guarantee of earnings or refunds". They promise to pay out up to (for example) 95% of deposits, the rest going to hosting or other fees and the owner's profit.

In such "games", the first participants ("investors") may make a good profit and are encouraged to refer other people to the program because of referral commission, the fact that they have already made back their principal and are playing with profit, and that the more people who deposit money, the more money can be paid out to participants. In theory, strategies can be developed to maximize profit using these games (but, of course, since this is a zero-sum game, such strategies work by taking advantage of ignorance or errors by others). Some forum users may gain a reputation whereby others will trust their word that they have been able to withdraw their profits, encouraging others to invest in the hopes that more will invest after them and that they can therefore make a profit. As these games are by definition Ponzi schemes, it is inevitable that the vast majority of investors who are not at the top of the pyramid will lose their money.

These "games" might be considered as lotteries. However, the odds of winning cannot be determined, as one cannot know whether one is playing early enough to win money (that is, whether a sufficient number of new participants will follow). Thus, these activities are unlike a lottery or other forms of gambling, where a player has an equal chance of winning no matter when a ticket is bought, or where the odds of the game are known.

HYIP monitors, or HYIP listing/rating sites, are personal or commercial websites that list and/or promote HYIPs for referral commissions. The monitor charges each HYIP a listing fee which is usually then invested into that program, although there exist free listings and occasionally monitors which invest their own money. The monitor then labels the HYIP as "Paying" or "Not paying/Scam" depending on whether interest is received within the terms specified by the program. Monitors also allow other HYIP investors to rate and comment on the programs, based on factors such as promptness of payouts and responsiveness of the HYIP administrator. Programs with higher ratings achieve higher rankings on the monitor sites, which coupled with a "Paying" status may entice more investors who rely on the monitor.

In most cases, HYIPs only pay monitor sites to keep their "Paying" status visible, but do not pay other investors. As HYIP monitors are not affiliated with the HYIPs themselves, they are unable to prevent investors from being scammed; they neither help to recover lost funds nor track down the scammers. Promoting or perpetuating Ponzi schemes is a criminal offense punishable by jail terms or fines in most countries. That the monitor sites place disclaimers saying that they "do not promote the programs advertised on their website" does not absolve them from criminal liability.

In order to generate a "paying" status early (so that future visitors will see it) and maintain it for the longest possible time, newly opened HYIPs list their site quickly as well as constantly pay monitors their interest on time. Added to the fact that many monitors invest the listing "fee", and that a commission is received on each deposit made by people who visit the HYIP via the monitor, they are the most likely to profit when a program runs out of funds.

HYIP owners can manipulate monitors and forums, by paying people to comment positively or by using a range of IP addresses or proxy servers in different locations so that "paying" votes appear to come from around the world. This allows the HYIP to rise up the rankings more quickly than others, giving investors a false sense of security. Additionally, even if they know it will scam in the future, some investors will also rate new HYIPs positively until the HYIP stops paying, because they want more people to invest after them in the hopes that the program will last longer. Future scammers can also build up a good reputation on forums for a large payoff once most forum members trust them.

The problem is seen as many monitors appear only to make certain programs more acceptable and trustworthy. It basically shows the true face of the HYIP scene.


I would like to share to you a story about a wife and her husband. I got this true story from a book, ripples of joy, which was given to me by my brother. Reading it did inspire me and touched my heart.

I am a caregiver. My forty-year-old husband, David, has a little known genetic disease called Huntington’s disease. He can do almost nothing for himself.
I can tell you that caregivers experience a wide range of emotions, depending on the largely upon the person whom we are caring. Lately, I have to admit; I’ve been feeling there’s really no reward for what I am doing.

David has difficulty feeding for himself, and swallowing is accomplished only with great deal of effort. One day, with more food landing on his shirt than in his mouth, David and I were going through the usual “ change the shirt” game.

“David lift up your arms,” I pleaded. And then, “if you do, we can go and have ice cream.”
David’s garbled speech made his response to my urging impossible to comprehend. I did figure out, however, that he had no intention of lifting his arms or cooperating as I changed his shirt.

I felt myself tense up, and I sighed in frustration. I didn’t need this today. Try as I would, I simply couldn’t understand what he was saying. And we weren’t moving any near our goal-getting him into a clean shirt.

‘David,” I finally said, “my job is to feed you, make sure you take your medications, and help your doctors and nurses. Your job is to help me help you. You need to lift your arms, please.”
With an endearing smile so like that of the man I had married before the ravages of Huntington’s disease took him away, David said, “No. My job is to say ‘I love you’ in as clear voice as possible.”

Care giving is not something I would ever choose to do. Imagine most people would not choose what is usually an almost thankless job-especially without pay. Still, there are rewards. Remembering David’s smile and his comment about his “job” is a nice memory I can pull out on days when things get really tough. We all have our Jobs, and David’s job is to say, “I love you.”
David, I love you too.


After her successful movie, High School Musical, it not a wonder why this lovely actress is now dipping herself into the music arena of composing musics.

Still home on break from filming the new movie “Will”, Vanessa Hudgens was out working on her upcoming sophomore album on Saturday afternoon (February 16).

The High School Musical actress was spotted looking as cute as ever while leaving her songwriter’s home in Venice, California.


Playing board games is fun exciting. It is considered that backgammon is the oldest board game ever played. This exciting board game is now online. Get the chance to play internet backgammon. offers players the exciting backgammon games. Get the chance to play with other players in the world. The rules in playing online backgammon are the same with the physical board game. In order to play online backgammon, you need to download the software. After the downloading process is completed, you can start immediately. You can also get backgammon money just by playing online. To have more information about the site, visit their websit at


Backgammon is considered the oldest board game ever played. This fun and exciting game is now online. Play backgammon with your friends and family., the site where you can play backgammon online. Playing online backgammon is just the same as playing with the physical board game. All rules still apply. The good thing about playing online is that you get to play different players from different parts of the world and join in backgammon tournaments. For more information about the site, visit their website at

Friday, February 15, 2008


Spyware removal is a tedious but necessary chore. At best, spyware slows down your computer and brings up those annoying popup windows. At worst, spyware can monitor your activities on your computer without your knowing, steal vital information from your computer such as passwords and bank account numbers, and even crash your computer. Thus, the removal of spyware, no matter how laborious and time-consuming, is a very important task.

Free Tools for Spyware Removal

To get rid of the spyware plaguing your computer system, you would need to get your hands on software that does spyware removal. If you can afford to buy software for spyware removal, there are a lot of proprietary programs available in the market that can do the job for you.

But if you are not willing to spend money on software, there are also plenty of spyware removal programs that you can download for free from various reliable websites. Some are demo versions of proprietary spyware removal software, while others are free for home use.

Whether you choose to invest on spyware removal software or opt to download free spyware removal tools, there are three programs that you must get in order to rid your computer completely of such malware. These programs are a spyware scanner, an antivirus program and a registry cleaner. The spyware scanner removes the obvious spyware while the antivirus program will get rid of the viruses included in the spyware. The registry cleaner will dredge out the malicious code hiding within your Windows registry.

The Proper Way of Spyware Removal

Below is a step-by-step guide in spyware removal:

Install the spyware removal software that you have bought or downloaded for free - the spyware scanner, the antivirus and the registry cleaner. Once installed, disconnect your computer from the Internet and then run the scan for a first pass.

Once the first pass is done, reboot your computer, run it on safe mode, and do a second pass. Sometimes, spyware include resuscitators that will keep them from being completely wiped out of your system. By running only the essential applications on your computer on safe mode, you can be sure that these resuscitators will not be able to stop your spyware removal software from doing their work.

After the second pass, restart your computer and let it run normally. Check your Internet browser if the malicious websites that were the source of your spyware managed to include themselves in your list of trusted websites.

To prevent spyware from infesting your computer again, set your spyware removal software to do regular runs. Your antivirus software and spyware scanner should be running while you are using your computer to block all incoming malware. As for your registry scanner, you can run it once or twice a month to delete all malicious code hiding in your registry.


Financial responsibilities are part of life. It could be our house rent, lights and water bills, credit card bills, telecommunication and other financial obligations that need to be paid immediately. Because if we don’t pay these responsibilities as it due, we might suffer the burden of paying the penalties and surcharges that are considered a load to carry. Most workers rely on their salary every payday. The problem is that, most financial obligations becomes due before payday arrives. When we experience financial problem, the best way to solve it is just to apply for a cash advance and payday loan. helping people by providing them with instant cash to pay their financial obligations as it becomes due. Payday loans are the most reliable way to solve financial difficulties. It is better than selling a property or even seeking financial help from friends and family to lend you an amount that you need. Applying for a payday loan with is easy and fast. There are no financial documents that need to be submitted. All you have to do is fill-up an online application. Processing of all cash advance and payday loans is fat and within 48 hours, the loan application will be guaranteed approved. The approved amount for your payday loan goes straight to your saving or checking account. The money that you need will be sent immediately without any delay. It is also guaranteed that all information that you provided will be secured and safe with To have more information about cash advance and payday loans, visit their website at

Tuesday, February 12, 2008


Only the brave know how to forgive; it is the most refined and generous pitch of virtue that human nature can arrive at.


This was how Britney looked like when she was seen walking and having conversation with her companions. She looks like a hooker and a prostitute without a customer in the morning.

This weekend may be all about the Grammys but this pop star wasn't a part of any of the festivities. Instead, Britney spent part of the weekend practicing her dance moves for her new video at the Millennium dance studio. She also made sure to take time for Red Bull, Starbucks and cigarette breaks. Her father Jamie came to check in on her and he seems to be keeping a close eye on his recovering daughter. Britney also is sporting some new extensions but I can't say they are much of an improvement. A bra or less ripped stocking might have helped but at least for the most part she seemed to lay low this weekend, which is certainly better than weekends past.


If anyone can find two different people to date whose parents also thought it was a good idea to name them after a famous European city, it’s Paris Hilton. She had an on-off relationship with Greek shipping heir Paris Latsis, a male, and has now reportedly found temporary love in the arms of another woman also named Paris. Not feeling guilty for calling out your own name in the throws of passion is one of the perks of picking a mate with the same first name, and for someone as vain as Paris that probably matters. Anyone who’s willing to risk their health and wants to get with Paris should just tell her their name is also Paris and they’re in for a moderately satisfying time, if her sex tape and bland personality are anything to go by.

The 26-year-old Hilton heiress has ignited a torrid romance with 22-year-old Paris Pickard, an aspiring film director, say sources.

The two have been seen making out at several lesbian clubs.

“The relationship has been going on a little over two months, and while Paris P. would love the relationship to be exclusive, the feeling isn’t mutual,” says the isnider.

“The Simple Life” star has also reportedly danced close with Katherine Moennig and Daniela Sea of “The L Word” in LA - and was also reportedly caught in a lip lock with “24″ star Elisha Cuthbert in NY…

“Paris P feels she has a special bond with Paris Hilton, but the two women had a huge fight about fidelity, and Paris H told Paris P that she’d like to keep dating her, but that she’d have to be OK with her being very flirtatious.”

“Paris P feels she has a special bond with Paris Hilton, but the two women had a huge fight about fidelity, and Paris H told Paris P that she’d like to keep dating her, but that she’d have to be OK with her being very flirtatious.”

[From The National Enquirer, print edition, February 18, 2008]

Paris Hilton recently confirmed that she’s up for a role in the Showtime lesbian drama “The L Word,” and told US Magazine that she’s “in for talks” after the strike is over and is “definitely shooting it.” When asked by a paparazzo about the kiss with Elisha Cuthbert, Paris said said “Elisha’s like my sister, that’s not true.” When the photographer asked her if she’s “batting for the other team,” she said “no I’m not.” Maybe Paris is just a pitch hitter.

There are a lot of photos of Paris Pickard on the Flickr site for a fellow photographer and filmmaker. She’s gorgeous and could easily be a celebrity herself. If this story is true I wonder what she sees in Paris.


It looks like Kathleen Turner’s tell-all memoir, Send Yourself Roses, is ruffling a few feathers in Hollywood, especially those of her former co-star, Nicolas Cage. In the book, Kathleen says that Cage was deliberately difficult during the filming of their hit movie, “Peggy Sue Got Married,” and that the actor drank excessively and stole a chihuahua. Nicolas Cage caught wind of Kathleen’s story. I am sure someone told him about it rather than him, you know, actually reading the book. First, he denied the story by telling TMZ, “I have never been arrested for anything in my life, nor have I stolen a dog. I am reaching out to my fans — many of whom are children — so they know that I do not condone drunk driving or theft. The reason why you’ve never seen a mug shot of me is because it does not exist.” Wait, his fans are children? They must have really enjoyed his work in “Leaving Las Vegas” and “8mm.”

Apparently, a simple denial wasn’t enough for the action star. Now, Cage is fighting back– Hollywood style– with a libel lawsuit.

Nicolas Cage is suing Kathleen Turner over comments she made about him in her autobiography Send Yourself Roses.

The actress accused Cage of causing problems on the set of 1986 comedy Peggy Sue Got Married in a bid to prove that he had not won the role because director Francis Ford Coppola was his uncle.

She also said he was arrested for drunk-driving and stealing a chihuahua

Cage spoke out to dismiss the allegations and has since issued libel proceedings against her at the High Court in London.

A spokesman said: “The libel action follows false allegations that appear in the forthcoming autobiography. As legal proceedings have been commenced, it would be inappropriate to comment further.”


Now that it’s over and done with, Rihanna can look back on the 50th Annual Grammy Awards with fondness and pride. After all, she took home her first Grammy last night.

Winning a trophy for Best Rap/Sung Collaboration, the “Umbrella” singer also put on a killer performance as part of the night’s festivities.

Monday, February 11, 2008


With the internet growing larger each day so has the risk of your pc becoming infected with spyware as you continuously surf the web. Now most people know that there are many free spyware removal tools available for download on the internet that will automatically scan and remove any infections your operating system may have, but how many people actually know what spyware is and how it can infect your computer.

Spyware is simply defined as any piece of software which installs or harvests itself onto your windows operating system without your immediate awareness and is designed to discreetly monitor your surfing activities and steal information. These infections most commonly come from software downloads which may be bundled with infectious files, email attachments and from surfing websites which trigger background installations without your awareness. The information it can gain access to and steal includes banking details, username and passwords, email addesses and other information related to your websites surfed which is then relayed to distant users who use it for advertising purposes. Due to the fact that spyware infections infect various different and important system files on your computer the only way to successfully remove it is to use a free spyware removal program which will quarantine any potential threats you may have.

Spyware can also hack security settings in internet explorer and lower them which will make your pc more vulnerable of receiving infections. Some of the most common symptoms associated with spyware infections include severe speed degradation, deleted desktop shortcuts, browser redirecting, changing of start up homepage and poor functionality.

Xoftspyse is my personal recommendation as the best free spyware removal program which has continued to gain huge popularity because of its solid virus removal abilities. If you would like to download the latest free version in their website.


I am using an old fashioned eyeglasses and I really want to change it. The best place to search items is through the Internet. One day, I was looking for new eyeglasses to replace my old one. As I was searching the Internet, I made a great discovery: Zenni Optical Eyeglasses. I immediately bought a Zenni Optical $8 Rx Glasses. The prescription glass that I bought is very stylishly designed and very affordable. Now that the best thing found: Zenni Optical is always the brand that I recommend to all of my friends. As I wear the optical eyeglass that I bought from Zenni Optical, I never had a hard time reading even the smallest text letters of a document that I read. There bare so many designs to choose from and I am sure you will find the perfect eyeglasses for you. The Zenni Optical $8 Rx Glasses are not just sold locally but also internationally. Visit their website at for your own stylish prescription glasses.


In the society that we live in today people now class all unsolicited email as spam. This includes automatic replies, emails containing viruses and unwanted but legitimate business propositions.

Spam is nearly as old as the Internet and many believe that the problem of spam will never really go away as spammers are becoming increasingly difficult to stop. They are also finding more and more ways of delivering spam mail around the Internet.

One thing that many of us never really understand is how spammers get our email addresses in the first place. One of the main ways in which this is done is through spammers using computers to check almost every page of websites on the Internet looking for the '@' symbol. If the symbol is found the spammer knows that it is an email address and then simply adds your email address to their database so that when the spammer sends out an automated spam message everyone who is on the database will receive it.

Spammers get your email address without you even realising it. The way in which you can reduce the chance of this happening is to ensure that you don't place your email address on pages across the Internet; however if you need to do this for example for customers of your business to get in touch with you or if someone has requested your email address you should make it accessible to them by replacing the @ symbol, i.e. name[at]domain[dot]com. Spammer programmes will not be able to pick this up as an email address and you will still be able to place your email address on webpage's.

Another way in which spammers are able to get a hold of your email address is if your email address is sorted on someone's computer who gets a virus. Spam virus takes advantage of an infected computer and sends spam emails to all the addresses sorted within that PC. These spam emails do not get sent from the email address of the infected computer owner; they are sent from a fake, spam email address.

If you are finding that you are getting spam messages there are certain steps that you can take to reduce the amount of spam that you receiving, as well as getting a spam blocker/filter you should always remember to never reply to the spam email and never un-subscribe. Many people think that if they request to be taken off a 'mailing' list that they won't receive any more spam emails. This is in fact opposite of what actually happens. If you request to un-subscribe the only thing that you are doing is verifying to a spammer that your email account is valid and they will simply send you more spam mail as they think that you are reading them.

The best reaction to take to spam mail is no reaction. You should never interact with a spammer in anyway as they will just send you more spam emails. To tackle spam messages you should invest in an anti-spam software and let that take care of the spam for you.


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Sunday, February 10, 2008


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Saturday, February 9, 2008


Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea; family Oleaceae along with lilacs, jasmine and ash trees), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. It is commonly used in cooking, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. Olive oil is more healthful than other sources of alimentary fat because of its high content of monounsaturated fat (mainly oleic acid) and polyphenols.

Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide, about 95% of those in the Mediterranean region. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe, North Africa and Middle East. Of the European production, 93% comes from Spain, Italy, Turkey, and Greece. Spain's production alone accounts for 40% to 45% of world production, which was 2.6 million metric tons in 2002. In 2006 Turkey accounted for over 25% of world production, this figure is similar to the province of Jaen production alone, in Spain, well known as the biggest olive groves in the world.

In olive oil-producing countries, the local production is generally considered the finest. In North America, Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known, and top-quality extra-virgin oils from Italy, Spain and Greece are sold at high prices, often in "prestige" packaging.

Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. It is the world's top producer of black olives and boasts more varieties of olives than any other country. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees, which produce approximately 350,000 tons of olive oil annually, of which 82% is extra-virgin. About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported, but only some 5% of this quantity reflects the origin of the bottled product. Greek exports primarily target European Union (EU) countries, the main recipient being Italy, which receives about three-quarters of total exports. Olives are grown for oil in mainland Greece, with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production, as well as in Crete, the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands.

The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils in accordance with EU law. Among the many different olive varieties used in Italy are Frantoio, Leccino Pendolino, and Moraiolo. In Spain the most important varieties are the Picual, Alberquina, Hojiblanca, and Manzanillo de Jaén. Demand for olive oil has soared in the United States. In 1994, exports to the US totaled 28.95 million gallons, a 215% increase from 1984. The US is Italy's biggest customer, absorbing 22% of total Italian production of 131.6 million gallons in 1994. Despite shrinkage in production, Italian exports of olive oil rose by 19.2% from 1994 to 1995. A large share of the imports went from the EU, especially Spain

The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid, Spain, with 23 member states. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production, defining quality standards, and monitoring authenticity. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. The United States is not a member of the IOOC, and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). The USDA uses a different system, which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. The California Olive Oil Council, a private trade group, is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules.

The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. IOOC terminology is precise, but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced, by its chemistry, and by its flavor. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). After extraction the remnant solid substance, called pomace, still contains a small quantity of oil.

According to an article by Tom Mueller in the August 13, 2007 Issue of the The New Yorker, regulation is extremely lax and corrupt. Meuller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets requirements.

The several oils extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as:

* Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label.
* Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil; the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil.
* Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents—mostly hexane—and by heat.

Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity, defined as the percent, measured by weight, of free oleic acid it contains. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation; as the oil degrades, more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides, increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level, which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized, another cause of rancidity.

In order to classify it by taste, olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. This is also called its organoleptic quality.

As IOOC standards are complex, the labels in stores (except in the U.S.) clearly show an oil's grade:

* Extra-virgin olive oil comes from the first pressing of the olives, contains no more than 0.8% acidity, and is judged to have a superior taste. There can be no refined oil in extra-virgin olive oil.
* Virgin olive oil has an acidity less than 2%, and judged to have a good taste. There can be no refined oil in virgin olive oil.
* Pure olive oil. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined olive oil and one of the above two categories of virgin olive oil.
* Olive oil is a blend of virgin oil and refined oil, containing no more than 1.5% acidity. It commonly lacks a strong flavor.
* Olive-pomace oil is a blend of refined pomace olive oil and possibly some virgin oil. It is fit for consumption, but it may not be called olive oil. Olive-pomace oil is rarely found in a grocery store; it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants.
* Lampante oil is olive oil not used for consumption; lampante comes from olive oil's ancient use as fuel in oil-burning lamps. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market.

Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully.

* "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label.
* "Made from refined olive oils" suggests that the essence was captured, but in fact means that the taste and acidity were chemically produced.
* "Light olive oil" actually means refined olive oil, not a lower fat content. All olive oil has 120 calories per tablespoon (34 J/ml).
* "From hand-picked olives" may indicate that the oil is of better quality, since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield.
* "First cold press" means that the oil in bottles with this label is the first oil that came from the first press of the olives. The word cold is important because if heat is used, the olive oil's chemistry is changed.
* "Bottled in Italy" or "Packed in Italy" does not necessarily mean that the olive oil originated in Italy. Back or side labels indicate the origin of the olive oil which is often a mixture of oils from several nations.

Most of the governments in the world are members of the International Olive Oil Council, which requires member governments to promulgate laws making olive oil labels conform to the IOOC standards.

The United States is the only major oil-producing or oil-consuming country which is not a member of the IOOC, and therefore, the retail grades listed above have no legal meaning in the United States. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which controls this aspect of labeling, currently lists four grades of olive oil: "Fancy", "Choice", "Standard", and "Substandard". These were established in 1948. The grades are based on acidity, absence of defects, odor and flavor. While the USDA is considering adopting labeling rules that parallel the international standards, until they do so, terms such as "extra virgin" may be applied to any grade of oil, making the term of dubious usefulness.

live oil is composed mainly of oleic acid and palmitic acid and other fatty acids, along with traces of squalene (up to 0.7%) and sterols (about 0.2% phytosterol and tocosterols).

Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, including oleocanthal and oleuropein.

The most traditional way of making olive oil is by grinding olives. Green olives produce bitter oil, and overly ripened olives produce rancid oil, so care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. First the olives are ground into an olive paste using large millstones. The olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. The oil collected during this part of the process is called virgin oil. After grinding, the olive paste is spread on fibre disks, which are stacked on top of each other, then placed into the press. Pressure is then applied onto the disk to further separate the oil from the paste. This second step produces a lower grade of oil.

Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats, most notably oleic acid.

In the United States, producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels:

Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about two tablespoons (23 grams) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil. To achieve this possible benefit, olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.

This decision was announced November 1, 2004, by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts.

There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation, and that it exerts antiinflamatory, antithrombotic, antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans.

But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content, rather than its fatty acid profile, that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. For example, a clinical trial published[citation needed] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 grams of white bread and 40 milliliters of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. The study was conducted in two stages. During the first stage, the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). During the second phase, they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants, they exhibited increased arterial elasticity, while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols, they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. It is theorized that, in the long term, increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. This could, at least in part, explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis.

In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil, topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin, especially when used in the Oil Cleansing Method (OCM). OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil, castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils.

Jeanne Calment, who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan, reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil, which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin.

Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions, and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. It does have demulcent properties, and mild laxative properties, acting as a stool softener. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. Olive Oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions, and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus.

Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet.

Homer called it "liquid gold." In ancient Greece, athletes ritually rubbed it all over their body. Drops of it seeped into the bones of dead saints and martyrs through holes in their tombs. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal, magical, an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power.

Besides food, olive oil has been used for religious rituals, medicines, as a fuel in oil lamps, soap-making, and skin care application. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. 1175, olive oil, from Anglo-Fr. and O.N.Fr. olie, from O.Fr. oile (12c., Mod.Fr. huile), from L. oleum "oil, olive oil" (cf. It. olio), from Gk. elaion "olive tree", which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior", probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time.

The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin; wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor which is now called Anatolia, the modern nation of Turkey.

It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium; along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium; or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium.

A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times), though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel.

Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations, but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood.

Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region, and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.

Over 5,000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean. In the centuries that followed, olive presses became common, from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile.

Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC), which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.

Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete, Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs over 4,000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. Sinuhe, the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC, wrote of abundant olive trees.

Until 1500 BC, the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete, and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization, where it is thought to have represented wealth. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and, when the oil had risen to the top, drained the water from the bottom.[citation needed]. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage, then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC.

The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt.[dubious – discuss] During this time, the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later the Kingdom of Israel c. 1000 BC. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron), where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1,000 and 3,000 tons of olive oil per season.

Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. According to the historian Pliny, Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD, "the best in the Mediterranean", he maintained, a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. According to legend, the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential, preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff).

The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC, the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states, together with naked appearance of athletes, and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense.

In Jewish observance, olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt, and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests, which is where the expression pure olive oil originates, stored in special containers. A copy of the Menorah is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC), when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to, allowing more time for more oil to be made. Although candles can be used to light the Hanukkiah, oil containers are preferred, to imitate the original Menorah. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel, originating from King David. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath, by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash.

Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration — God's setting a person or place apart for special work. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism, which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit), in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops, in the consecration of altars and churches, and, traditionally, in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings.

Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches and home prayer corners. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. A cork float with lit a wick floats on the oil. To douse the flame, the float is carefully pressed down into the oil.

In Islam, olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch, the tourch is in a glass bulb, the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree, neither Eastern nor Western, its oil almost glows, even without fire touching it, light upon light." The Qur’an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive, and the Mount of Sinai, and this secure city." Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Muslim Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases.